Polyoxins are natural fungicides originating from microorganisms first discovered by Dr. Saburo Suzuki and his team at the Riken in 1963. They are produced by culturing the actinomycete Streptomyces cacaoi var. asoensis isolated from the soil the area around Mt. Aso in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan. Polyoxins are not a single compound; they are a complex consisting of a series of compounds resembling each other in their chemical structure. Currently, 14 different Polyoxin analogues, Polyoxins A through N, have been discovered. Polyoxins have been sold as horticultural fungicides for over 50 years, and they are still widely used today. Polyoxin AL is effective against a wide range of fungi-related diseases such as mildew, gray mold, and other mold fungi diseases that affect vegetables, flowers, and other plants. Polyoxin D zinc salt was categorized as a bio-pesticide after it was recognized as safe for humans and livestock and being completely derived from natural sources through stringent inspections by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. It is now widely used in the United States to prevent diseases in lawns and flowers as well as in nuts, fruits, and vegetables.
Synthesized at the Sagami Chemical Research Center and developed by KAKEN, Pentoxazone is an oxazolidinedione-type rice herbicide. In 1997, it was registered as an agrochemical in Japan. Since then, it has been used as an herbicide for paddy rice in its initial formulation and in several mixed formulations based on this initial formulation. Pentoxazone is effective mainly on annual weeds in rice paddies, such as barnyard grass, Lindernia, and Monocholia, and is also widely effective on other weeds including Eleocharis kuroguwai, a perennial weed that is difficult to eradicate. Pentoxazone shows high, stable, and residual efficacy particularly on Lindernia and Monocholia, both of which are resistant to sulfonylurea herbicides. The safety of Pentoxazone is high for rice paddies, and therefore it can be used in a variety of ways. Its initial formulation can be used on rice paddies before or after the rice is transplanted, and its one-shot herbicide formulation can be used at the same time as rice planting. There are also formulations approved for flooding and direct seeding in rice paddies. Having extremely low water solubility and high soil absorbability, Pentoxazone hardly flows out to groundwater and rivers. Furthermore, it has low toxicity to humans, animals, and other living forms. For these reasons, it is an environmentally safe herbicide.
Salinomycin sodium is a polyether antibiotic originally discovered by KAKEN in a culture of Streptomyces albus, a strain of Actinomycetes in 1968. Later, it was developed as a feed additive by KAKEN. Salinomycin sodium is currently the most widely used anti-coccidial for chickens in the world, having effectiveness against Clostridium and other gram-positive bacteria. Produced in accordance with Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines, Salinomycin sodium is not only used in Japan but is also exported, thus supporting poultry farmers worldwide.
Colistin sulfate is a polypeptide antibiotic that was discovered in 1950 in a culture of Bacillus colistinus taken from the soil in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Colistin sulfate is effective against gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli and salmonella, which are serious pathogens for livestock. Accordingly, there is a great international demand for this product. Therefore, KAKEN also exports this product worldwide.